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"Remanufacturing is the restoration of used products, or components, to a condition that has performance characteristic similar to those of new products" (Lewis & Gertsakis, 2001)


  • extends the life of the product
  • delays the frequency at which companies have to deal with waste material
  • is mainly used for commercial products (such as photocopiers)
  • is rarely used for domestic products, due to:
    • the decentralised and unpredictable market and supply for used goods
    • rapid technological changes
    • high transport costs
    • customers prejudice against remanufactured products

(Lewis & Gertsakis, 2001, Henstock, 1998)

Remanufacturing is often carried out by:

  • original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) who make and sell remanufactured versions of their products
  • independent remanufacturers who purchase unserviceable products and remanufacture them for sale
  • contract remanufacturers who refurbish products under contract to a customer, who retains ownership of the products

For More Information

Henstock. M. E (1998) ‘Design for Recyclability’, The Institute of Metals, London, UK

Lewis. H and Gertsakis. J (2001) ‘Design + Environment: a global guide to designing greener goods’, Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, UK

For more information read: For more information read: Clark. T, Adams. G and Charter. M (ed.) (2002) Smart ecoDesign™ Eco-design Checklist: For Electronic Manufacturers, ‘Systems Integrators’, and Suppliers of Components and Sub-assemblies, Version 2, Centre for Sustainable Design, Surrey, UK,